GeekNation Activities

Posted in AntiBullyingMonth, GeekNation, Learning

Remember to #geekout is just to be excited about something, to have a spark about a subject- don’t let anyone dull that spark. Here are some ideas for #AntiBullyingWeek:

  1. Create a #complimentree – this is where each child says 3 nice things about different children in the class. This is written on some paper that’s leaf shaped and placed onto a tree.
  2. Create a word cloud before and after discussing a topic, see how words and their priority change. Words said more or less will appear bigger or smaller.
  3. Ask children and staff what they #geekout about. They could take a picture of it and add it to a class blog, explaining why it makes them #geekout.
  4. Create a class definition of a geek, the Old Hall Primary definition is that ‘a geek is someone who has a love and enjoyment of a particular subject and wants to know all about it.’
  5. What is rudeness? What does it look like? How do we stop ourselves from being rude? Create a blogpost, piece of writing, vlog anything and share on @_geeknation.
  6. Share what makes your class  #geekout. This can be anything from computers to sports statistics and anything in between. Being a geek is a compliment, it’s just loving something, it’s a state of mind
  7. Create class posters informing your school what it is to be a geek and helping more children to be more secure, confident and to #embracethegeek.
  8. Ask you children to prepare a small talk and to go to another class and explain about @_geeknation and it’s ethos, it’s about celebrating difference and not identifying it!
  9. Ask children what is difference? Why is it important? Can you create a poem that you can record and share on social media?
  10. Create a StopMotion Animation clip about the topic of bullying, name calling, stigma or confidence.
  11. Ask staff to share what they #geekout about and share in an assembly or in class, children then match subjects to teachers.
  12. Get children to bring in their #geekout items, ask them to share with a partner who has different interests. This is a good activity for understanding, tolerance and open mindedness.
  13. Create a persuasive piece of writing why it is amazing to be a geek and to #geekout over a subject.
  14. What is meanness? what is it to be mean? why are we mean sometimes? because we can’t see why something is important to someone. How can we change this mindset? Create an ‘and’ poem.
  15. Create a Tellagami video which explains themes of tolerance, understanding or name calling and what they think about #AntiBullyingWeek.
  16. Ask children to suggest other names that they have been called or have heard people been called and create their own activity.
  17. Persuade others to #geekout over your subject, it could be a poster, Tellagami video, Prezi, a doodle or even a bookcreator project.
  18. Children start their own project, I love a bit of project based learning! Children learn so well from doing this and it really gets them enthused about a subject.
  19. Children create a movie trailer based on what they #geekout about.
  20. Children create a superhero/comic strip based on whatever it is they #geekout about.
  21. ? Your turn, Have fun!.

Like I said these are just ideas that are meant to help anyone who wants some last minute inspiration for #AntiBullyingWeek. I’ll be running activities and ideas for the whole month and please submit ideas and completed activities to me using the hashtags #embracethegeek or #geekout and @_geeknation.

The Power of Blogging!

Posted in Blogging, Education

Last week I was running a course with the terrific Cherise Duxbury (@Cherise_Duxbury) and Casey Lynchey (@KCLynchey) about raising standards in English with Educational Technology. Amongst many of the things covered on the course is blogging, and its educational benefit!

Image result for blogging


If the work of the ‘typical’ child in the ‘typical’ classroom is good I do the usual great things, give them a merit, raffle prize, sing their praises to the class, tell their parents, maybe give them a classdojo point etc. If it’s really good I show another member at school or show the headteacher who will also celebrate the child but that’s about it. So at the most with class and other members of staff included the audience is 30-37. However, with a blog your audience can be the whole world! You may be doing a geography topic about Peru and be lucky enough for someone from that country to get in touch! Also with a blog parents could have the opportunity to see a daily, or weekly, record of their child’s writing; as opposed to the parent’s evening flick through.

Image result for blogging

Flipped Learning:

My understanding of flipped learning is that school work can be done at home, challenges of learning are set to be completed; as opposed to homework worksheets. An example of flipped learning could be when the next area of maths is column addition the homework might be to watch a demonstration video of adding with the formal method, which can be repeatedly viewed until the child feels confident with this. The pupil could then progress to completing some maths questions maybe 3-6 which are set more to secure the knowledge rather than challenge it. This means when Monday arrives every pupil has been at home being the teacher and feels fairly secure with the new topic.

Portable Classroom

The final area I’ll mention is the idea that with a blog children can continue their learning at home, they can choose to write at home, to be an author in their spare time and to give the world a view of what it’s like to be Joe Blogs in Year? Class. Joe can write an extract of his choosing, or a set of maths questions for people to answer, or share a picture of an amazing film, or place and what he thinks of it.

Image result for blogging

My final thoughts are simple, blogs are one of the most powerful tools for learning that a teacher can use! Surely any activity where a child is choosing to continue to practise what they have learnt is a good one. If you have a class or personal blog please post it as a comment so I can view and comment the excellent work you do with your children!

Image result for blogging

Thanks for Reading!

STEM in Schools.

Posted in Education, Minecraft, Physical Computing, STEM

Maximising the potential:

“For our prosperity to continue, the government believes we need high levels of skills in science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM), and citizens that value them.” (Department for Business Innovation and Skills, 2015).

STEM is a hot topic in primary schools and I will be discussing how to develop STEM in your class and a situation where it worked for me. Here’s six STEM principles for the classroom:

  1.    Make it real– the situation/problems should be believable and immerse the children
  2.    Guided by a design process– students define problems, conduct background research, develop ideas, and then test, evaluate, and redesign.
  3.    Hands-on inquiry – learning is open ended, within constraints. (Constraints usually are available materials).
  4.    Pupils should be a productive team
  5.    Apply maths and science skills– learners encouraged that science and maths are not standalone subjects but part of problem solving.
  6.    Not one answer– there should be multiple correct answers, this will develop creativity in your classroom.


When it comes to STEM, challenges arise in that: teachers might be unfamiliar teaching STEM related lessons; national tests focus more on English, Spelling, Grammar and Maths (only the “M” of STEM); it may not be prudent to create a project based lesson with various outcomes as the class are not ready for it at that point. This can be explained by following the STEM process. Within a STEM project learners should research a topic, develop a plan and draw conclusions from research results. Following that, pupils will then record data accurately. Throughout the whole process learners should have skills to troubleshoot a problem as well as the knowledge to fix it. With these skills in mind STEM lessons may lend themselves to end of unit/ topic lessons, rather than weekly lessons.

Old Hall Minecraft Mania

STEM is an abbreviation for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Basic STEM skills are:

  • Communication and cooperation skills to listen to customer needs or interact with project partners.
  • Creative abilities to solve problems and develop new ideas.
  • Leadership skills to lead projects or help customers.
  • Organization skills to keep track of lots of different information.

It was with all this in mind that I embarked on our Minecraft project.

Last year I did the unthinkable, I invited Minecraft into my lessons- and I haven’t looked back. Like many teachers I had often overheard the incessant whispering or ‘Steve’, ‘Creepers’, ‘Villagers’ and ‘Pigs’ and I had decided it was enough! I was going to sort out this Minecraft thing once and for all!

It was at this point that I looked into Minecraft on the Raspberry Pi, this comes with the ‘Noobs’ software (available at: After a few hours of getting used to the controls I could see the potential. So I thought I would test the waters a bit by exploiting the children’s love of this ‘sandbox game’ in explanation texts. They would explain to this novice (aka me) the different features of the game, controls, how to play, getting started and even what it is. Heck they might even make some progress! Win win!

Building and designing 7

Now strictly speaking the writing in itself was not a STEM lesson but it did use it. This is because there was a real life situation for my children of explaining to their Neanderthal teacher what this was all about. Further, the children had to develop their ideas with each other to make sure each section achieved its purpose. Within a week, I had some excellent writing from the children in my Year 5 (age 9-10) class, which they were incredibly engaged with, as they were ‘the experts’.

Also, I then decided to continue with this thread of enthusiasm by using Minecraft in Topic as we needed to design an Anglo-Saxon village; I must say I was impressed. Within twenty minutes, every child in my class had created a house, with rooms inside and fashioned their own windows (no glass allowed). This is where Minecraft really aided me as yet again it was a real-life scenario, the children followed a process, hands on inquiry there were certain constraints but there should be in any project, they were a productive team, using perimeter and area skills, tenuous like but still there and there were multiple correct answers. So far, so good I managed to tick off all six of the STEM principles.

Teaching 1

I couldn’t wait to continue to use more Minecraft and technology in my lessons and I was sure the children agreed with me so I decided to exploit their weakness to Minecraft with a net creating activity. To brief was simple, create a net for a 3D shape for a Minecraft figurine, I gave the class some measurements and away they went. I allowed them to work in pairs but I wanted each child to have a completed net by the end of the 3 days. They were away! I couldn’t stop them, some of the time they wouldn’t accept help from me in case I ruined it. Also, as I counted it all six principles had again been achieved, and more importantly every child created a net that the figurine would fit inside; this really consolidated their learning on 3D shapes and nets in a more creative way than I could otherwise manage.  

To sum up, this digital building block game has been a gift to my lessons. I have enjoyed even more engagement from my class and this has led to a deeper understanding, which they can take home and practise whilst playing on their games. More importantly, the children really enjoyed this! Granted I may not do this for every lesson and yes Minecraft does have some pitfalls such as growing crops in saltwater? However, hopefully the children will go home and switch on the goggle box and make the connection that they explained to the ‘philistine’ of a teacher what Minecraft is and how it is played.

Mr C and Y5

Perhaps they will create a pyramid when we cover Ancient Egypt, or a rainforest when we learn about the Amazon, or even a replica of the Indus Valley! Who knows! What I do know for certain is without creating an opportunity for these connections it definitely won’t happen.

So what? What are the next steps? Well knowing how gifted my children at designing and building these digital models I could write a description of an area and see if the children could recreate it using inference and deductive skills. I could use Minecraft to inspire some writing. My pupils could create a scene from their favourite book, favourite monument around the world, or even build a perimeter and area problem for their friends to solve. I must be honest, and I know it sounds somewhat cheesy-pie but the possibilities are endless for the curriculum. The more I type the more I can think of ways this game of digital building blocks could be utilised in the classroom. Also, with the recent developments of Microsoft buying Minecraft and the educational version MincraftEdu I’m sure there will be developments over the next few months.

Building and designing 4

For more ideas of how Minecraft has been used in the classroom you can view:

@thecommonpeople – Adam Clarke has lots of great ideas on his Youtube channel, from getting started and controls to lesson ideas.

Mr Parkinson’s Blog:

@MattPEducation ‘s Blog which shows English and Maths strands and how they can be achieved.

How else can STEM skills be addressed?

An area of STEM that has not been discussed discretely is engineering, Minecraft obviously lends itself to engineering in a technological sense but not a practical one. As engineering isn’t a standalone subject in primary schools, how it is taught will vary. But engineering projects that are commonly used include:

  • Build a bridge out of drinking straws
  • Design a vehicle that could drive on land and sea
  • Make a simple electronics circuit including a bulb and a switch
  • Design and make a Christmas card with moving parts

Image result for STEM

Ultimately engineering in primary schools could be the gift that continues to give as it allows children the opportunity to put maths, science and design technology theory into practice in a way that cements their learning. Other ways that engineering could be developed are:

  1. The FIRST LEGO League: an annual robotics challenge where teams of nine- to 16-year-olds, compete to design a solution to a problem using Lego Mindstorms. There’s a Junior League for six- to nine-year-olds.
  2. Young Engineers: a school-based engineering club that also runs national competitions, including Krazy Racers – using K’Nex to create a unique passenger vehicle.
  3. Imagineering: after-school clubs for eight- to 16-year-olds, where children use kits to make working engineering models.
  4. Leaders Award: a competition for children aged five plus, they interview a person working in STEM and then submit a report – which could be a video, podcast or drawing – about what they have discovered.

Thanks for Reading!

Book Creator for iPad

Posted in Apps for Learning

Book creator is one of my go to apps. It is one that I definitely think every teacher should know about, partially because of it’s possible scope and also because of its brilliant user interface. Put simply Book Creator is a simple way to create your own beautiful ebooks, right on your tablet computer.

Book Creator has various options to choose from and is  ideal for making all kinds of books, including children’s picture books, comic books, photo books, journals, textbooks and more. This is another reasons that I am a fan as you can use the app again and again to suit your text type/ genre.

And when you’re done, easily share your book, or even publish to the iBooks Store!

On the app there are lots of features to choose from:

  • Add text, choosing from over 50 fonts
  • Add photos and images from your iPad’s photo library, from the web, or use the iPad’s Camera
  • Resize, rotate and position content as you like with guidelines and snap positioning
  • Add video and music, and even record your voice
  • Use the pen tool to draw and annotate your book
  • Choose from portrait, landscape or square book sizes

Overall, I would definitely encourage anyone reading this to get the app and try it for yourself. I currently have my digital leaders, self-titled ‘gadget geeks’ working on a how to eBook which they are making independently. As soon as that’s complete I will be publishing it on this blog and pushing it out on social media.

Thanks for reading!

For more check out:


Green screen and Animation for Learning.

Posted in Apps for Learning

So recently I ran a course in Bury which covered Green Screen and Animation techniques and how, as an educator, you can use these to enhance your lessons. I am a particular fan of both of these for a few reasons which I will cover below.

Green screen

The overall benefit of a green screen is that it puts children into their learning, whatever it is they can be immersed in it. This could be a virtual school trip, a revisit of a trip using pictures taken, children demonstrating a particular area of their learning or just entering an immersive world! Imagine speaking at the House of Commons at the age of 9! Or performing some performance poetry at Wembley! You could even explain about the Great Wall of China on location! This could be a very powerful tool in any class teachers arsenal. All that is needed is some green/dark blue material and a decent Green Screen app, I prefer Green screen by DoInk and Veescope but others are available.


For me animation is the other side of the coin, if Green Screen is immersing a child in their learning then Animation is the child manipulating it. This means that learners really need to think carefully about what they are explaining and what the content is. There are a couple of apps that I really enjoy using; stop motion studio and tellagami. Stop motion studio does what the name suggests, it collects pictures together as frames and then plays this through as a video. I’ve used this when children have demonstrated how to build an Anderson shelter with plasticine, or demonstrating how to be safe online. Tellagami is a much more digital app. Once you go into the app you choose a Gami (an avatar or character) using the Gami users can record their voice, once happy with this the Gami’s  mouth will move explaining whatever has been recorded.

The adults on the course thoroughly enjoyed using these skills in a small piece of project based learning. From this it’s hoped that they can go back to school and continue to use their creativity to continue applying green screen and animation to enhance learning in their lessons.

Greenscreen and Animation from Adam Chase on Vimeo.

For more about green screens and/or animation  you can always look up:



Do ink


Thanks for reading!


APPlying skills with AppsMe.Education

Posted in App Creating

So recently I decided that as a class project we would start to create an app about the Ancient Egyptians. After looking around and some advice from @Animate2Educate I settled on AppsMe Education. I did this for a few reasons:
– To achieve criteria from the Computing strand of the national curriculum.
– Children got the opportunity to explain topic-based knowledge.
– Children had to think about competency, being able to make everything bold doesn’t mean you have to.
– Apps me education has a very user friendly interface.

When we first accessed the digital classroom the children were pleased to see that they could all make their own app rather than contributing to a class / group one. Also, despite being limited by a few pages and a gallery etc the class found this the right amount of content for a series of lessons.

When the children had finished, edit and reviewed their content they had the option to publish their app. I must say it definitely didn’t disappoint. In many ways the format of the published apps are similar to many around today such as the @Naace app or a PIOTA school app. As stated by John Murray using apps:
“ applying skills in a meaningful context…perfect way to embed them and allow children to engage with and explore their wider application.”

Afterwards I asked the children what they would like if they were to go on apps me education again. Which we will! The overarching answer was the option to add more pages, in my opinion this is no bad thing. When learners want to do more I consider that a bonus! On balance though the option to do 2 information pages means children need to focus on the layout, feel and aesthetics of each page, a push towards quality over quantity.

Year 5 loved creating our app.

As a class we will definitely be creating apps in the future and I will heading to AppsMe education first. It’s user interface was brilliant and the separate teacher/ children logins were a bonus. Finally, and most importantly, the children loved doing this. They were research extra nuisances, checking and rechecking spellings and constantly applying their learning.


Thanks for Reading!

Algorithms – Programming made Real!

Posted in Physical Computing, Programming

A question often asked is: what is an algorithm? Put simply, it is an instruction. We use these in every day, the routine we have for getting dressed, making a bowl of cereal, the infamous school jam sandwich during KS1 instructional writing and finally writing the date and objective on a piece of work.

A recipe has clear instructions and a very clear order in which to follow them. When a cook follows each step they need to be precise, the more precise the better the instructions are followed.

Ensure that the children recognise that algorithms are just names for an everyday thing, an instruction.  Make sure that the word algorithm is rehearsed and used synonymously with instruction.


  • Play ‘Simon Says’ with the class, once children are understanding add pairs of instructions e.g “Simon says pat your tummy and rub your head.”
  • Board Games- children play game they enjoy, it could be Chess, a board game or Top Trumps. Challenge children to explain how they play the game in ten clear instructions. Role play as robots following these instructions exactly as they are told.
  • Play a game in PE – as board game task but children are in groups creating a simple game and then rotate in a carousel type task. Children must follow the instructions exactly.
  • Emphasise that algorithms need to be precise, humans can infer meaning if something is not clear, but a computer cannot. Therefore, as computers deal in yes and no they need precise instructions to perform them correctly.

Next Steps:

Children could create a video explanation of these algorithms. Alternatively, pupils could create explanation videos using apps such as explain everything (app store £4.49) or Show Me (free). They break up these videos to separate the precise instructions.

If you’ve enjoyed this and would like to see other ideas I’ve had for  classroom computing please comment.

Thanks for Reading!

Adam Chase

Socrative- A Simple, Strategic Assessment Tool.

Posted in Apps for AfL, Apps for Learning

At the start of the school year, I was introduced to a student clicker-type program called Socrative. It’s free and can be used in your web browser or downloaded as an app to a mobile device (available for iOS and Android devices), I must say I prefer the app as a class-based tool. I’ve been testing this out in my class for the past couple of months and have been rather impressed by the results.

There are essentially two modes for using Socrative: you can administer a pre-written quiz to your students with multiple-choice questions and free response questions, or you can administer a quick one-question activity or exit ticket.

I used the pre-built quiz feature for a few days as a warm-up activity for my children whilst they got used to the app and logging in. Students find the app on a tablet computer and then enter a code, there is a set, random one that is given to you. However, if you got to settings you can change your code for your class to something more memorable – I think this is a terrific feature!

Socrative 1
I was asked to demonstrate Socrative to my colleagues at a staff meeting, so I wrote a sample quiz for them. Here was one of the multiple-choice questions:

Socrative 2
Now, while students are taking the quiz, the teacher can use their end of the software to monitor progress and results in real time:

Socrative 3
Free-response questions can also be built into a Socrative quiz. Here’s an example from the quiz from the staff meeting:

Socrative 4
Now, here’s the interesting cool part. When I see that the children have finished, I end the activity. Then, I am presented with the option to e-mail a report to myself.
Socrative 5
So this morning when my students finished their warm-up question, I had a report e-mailed to me. A few minutes later, the results arrived in my inbox (student names have been removed):

Formative performance data that can inform and drive my classroom instruction to best meet the needs of my students. This is all organized and colour-coded in an Excel spreadsheet.

If you don’t have time to write a quiz in Socrative, that’s no problem at all. Socrative also allows for a quick one-question option that allows you to assess students on the fly. On the teacher control panel, you can choose to start a quick multiple choice, true/false, or short answer activity:
Socrative 7
You can announce the question orally, or provide it in a written format on paper or on the board. You select this option, and the students see this on their screen:
Socrative 8
Notice that there’s no question displayed. As I mentioned, it’s up to you to present the question however you want. The point is that you can use Socrative on the fly to formatively assess your students as well. You can also monitor results in real time, though there won’t be names attached (so this is also good for taking an anonymous poll). The downside, however, is that you can’t e-mail a report to yourself in this mode.
Socrative 6
So far, I’m seeing great advantages to using Socrative in my classroom. It’s a very handy way for me to quickly collect and organize formative assessment data before, during, and after a lesson. It allows me to more effectively monitor my students’ learning and to make appropriate instructional decisions. Overall, this is a great piece of software and is a very simple way of recording formative assessment data.
If you would like to learn more about apps for assessment I highly recommend  a course that NAACE  put on which is Apps for AfL. Find out more on:

Thanks for Reading!

Adam Chase

Skitch- The Simple Annotation Tool.

Posted in Apps for Learning

I have been recently using different apps with the aim of trying to become more paperless, from this I started using Skitch, Skitch is an app that has been around for a while, it’s available for Computers, Macs, iPads and even the Android Market. The app is made by Evernote and it tries to sort out information as easy as possible. It is easy for a user to capture screenshots, gallery pictures or take pictures in the app and then annotate them.

Skitch used in Y5

Skitch used in Y5

Skitch goes out of its way to keep things simple and coherent. It launches very quickly, and has a vertical toolbar with a scant seven tools, each with a large, clear icon. These are traditional image annotation tools: An arrow for pointing things out, a text tool, a colour picker with a limited palette of just eight colours, a rectangle you can surround objects with, a highlighter, a “pixelizer” for blurring out details, and a crop tool. With this app, students can sketch ideas, mark-up photos, make diagrams, create/label maps, and even annotate text.

Introducing Skitch: 

The Skitch app, which is very user-friendly, enables students to snap their own photos or upload images/screenshots from the web.  Before jumping into digital texts, I spent some time introducing the students to the app itself. We practised taking photos using the camera and practised using all the tools. We talked about appropriate tools for specific tasks and how not every tool will work for every assignment.

Further ideas:


  • Create diagrams (e.g., parts of a flower, stages of a life cycle, planets in a solar system, layers of the rainforest, etc.)
  • Create a map of your classroom/school
  • Create a treasure map using all the features of a map (i.e., key, scale, symbols, routes, geographical features, etc.)
  • Label of blank map of the continents or a map of the country

Text Annotating: 

  • Take a screenshot of non-fiction articles or snap

    Annotating the features of a text.

    a photo of text from a newspaper, magazine, or book to annotate for active reading

  • Take a photo of student writing to mark-up (i.e., label parts of a paragraph, highlight writing conventions, locate text-based evidence, etc.) — great for self-assessment!
  • Label fiction story elements
  • Label non-fiction text features (see my lesson above)
  • Highlight key words that show non-fiction text structure

Speaking and Listening: 

  • Capture examples and make content vocabulary come to life (snap pictures, sketch, label, etc.)


  • Deconstructing word problems (snap a photo & mark it up!)
  • Showing work for constructed response maths questions (you can use Skitch as a whiteboard)

Further Reading:

If you’re interested and would like to learn more about Skitch look at:

Also, if you would like to learn more about educational technology I would recommend you look at: 

Thanks for reading!

Padlet- The collaborative wall!

Posted in Apps for AfL, Apps for Learning

Padlet is an app that can be used in lots of different ways. This could be in a 1-to-1 situation, or the teacher could use a projector to show the class a bulletin board you create. Share the URL/QR code with the class have the children answer a discussion question, work on a “Do Now” activity, or even create an exit slip to show learning. I have even seen it used as a way of showing learning made during a topic, the class filled in a collective project at the start and then at the end of a unit to show progress made.  I have used it to create a bank of sentences as a class which can then be used in later writing e.g. how would describe… and then the children create sentences, I prefer three each, and this can be ‘magpied’ when they create a piece of writing.

Another idea is to use Padlet as a tool for small group projects. The teacher could divide the class into small groups and have the children work together at home to research a particular subject — for example, the Euros, Olympics or even the Romans. Each student could devote their research to a type of media supported by Padlet (video, audio, photo, or text), add it to their group’s shared wall, and then present the findings in class.

There are dozens of online bulletin board sites out there, but Padlet is one of the more intuitive, and probably most appealing to kids. The colourful backgrounds and customisation options let children add some personality to walls. The drag-and-drop interface is  smooth and easy to use. The depth of the site depends on what you put into it; it’s basically a blank page, but Padlet gives support and has examples of best use.

Children write a few sentences each and the class ends up with a paragraph.

Children write a few sentences each and the class ends up with a paragraph.

Padlet walls are great for study groups, class projects, and discussions. Classmates and friends can collaborate successfully on shared walls for study or fun, too — just keep an eye on them. Padlet gives students a lot of freedom to explore interests online and save that info in an organised manner. Whether it’s school- or fun-related, children get to create a space of their own.

All in all, Padlet gives students their own little corner of the Internet to collect and save information in a simple, fun and collaborative manner. It’s beyond easy to use, the interface is intuitive, and help is available around every corner. However, be aware that walls are semi-private by default, meaning there’s an extra step involved in ensuring total privacy for users.

Thanks for Reading,

Adam Chase.